Most organizations face a major challenge in managing access to sensitive information. Data that is sensitive can be linked to customer trust. This is why it is so essential to safeguard against misuse. Data that could identify an individual needs to be protected by a set of policies that prevent identity theft, compromising of systems or accounts, and other serious consequences. To prevent these risks access to sensitive information must be controlled using precise, role-based authorization.
There are many models that can be used to give access to sensitive information. The simplest model, called discretionary access controls (DAC), allows an owner or administrator to choose who has access to files and what actions they can take. This model is the default for most Windows, macOS, and UNIX file systems.
Role-based access control is a more robust and secure method. This model aligns privileges according to the specific requirements of a job. It also applies important security principles, including separation of privilege and the principle of the principle of least privilege.
Fine-grained access control is more advanced than RBAC by allowing administrators to assign access rights in accordance with an individual’s identity. It utilizes a combination of includes something you recognize, such as an account number, password, or device that generates codes and also something you own, like keys, access cards or devices with code-generating capabilities, as well as something you’re such as your fingerprint, iris scan, or voice print. This provides greater granularity in security and can solve many common problems with authorization, such as uncontrolled access by former employees as well as access to sensitive information via applications that are third-party.